Common Pests



■ major pest bringing economical lost, no harm to health

■ living in colonies

■ every colony has its own “queens” and “kings”, “soldiers” and “workers”

■ can be categorized as sterile and fertile 

-- fertile termites have long wings, shorts wing or no wings, their body sizes reproductive abilities decline according to their classes

-- sterile termites are “soldiers” and “workers

-- soldiers termites have special morphological adaptations 

■ categorized  by their living habits, there are wood termites, soil termites and subterranean termites

■ they dig holes and passages which are not found easily

■ termite trails are covered by dust and mud

床 蝨

Bed Bug

life cycle

■ incomplete metamorphosis


■ female bed bugs lay one to five eggs per day, or an average of 540 eggs in a lifetime

■ eggs are white in color, oval shape, 0.8~1.3x0.4~0.6mm long,they are sticky, adhere to where adult bugs live, such as crevices in bed frames, mosquito nets, furniture, walls, floors and ceilings. Nymphs are hatched one week in 18~25°C

■ nymphs and adults are alike, they are small and white in color,their reproductive organs are not yet mature, it takes 5 molts before reaching maturity..

■  life cycle is around 6-8 weeks and under good condition, bed bugs can live for 330 days. Under suitable conditions in warm areas, bed bugs can reproduce six or seven generations per year, and the adult life span can reach 9 to 18 months.



■ Class Insecta 

■ Order Dictyoptera 

■ Family Blattidae 

■ common name Cockroach

■ about 168 species are found in China, out of 4000 species all over the world


■ oval shape, abdomen is flat

■ big ones can reach 100mm in length,small ones are only 2mm long,common types are 10~30mm in length 

■ reddish brown or dark brown in color, body coated with shiny wax



3 common types of Rats:

a) Brown Rat(Rattus norvegicus)

 ■ common rat, street rat, sewer rat

 ■ body length:35~45cm

 ■ found in sewer, lower level houses, ground holes

b) Black Rat(Rattus rattus)

 ■ also known as roof rat, ship rat

 ■ body length:37~45cm

 ■ found in upper levels of homes, cliffs

c) House Mouse(Mus musculus)

 ■ small mouse

 ■ body length:18cm

 ■ found in rooftops, furnitures, food racks



■ Class Insecta

    Order Siphonaptera 

    Family Pulicidae 

    Family Leptopsyllidea 

■ divided in 16 families includes 2500 species

Adult morphology

■ The female flea is about 3mm long, the male flea is slightly short, and the body is brown to dark brown. With or without eyes. A strong thorn is called a beard.

■ The adult is small and squashed (the squashed body shape is unique to fleas)

■ The body of flea adults is divided into three parts: head, chest and abdomen



■ Order: Hymenoptera 

■ Subfamily: Vespoidea 

■ Classification: Aporita: Aculeata 

Chrysidoidea, Sphecoidea, Apideaz,Vespoidea


■ Same Superorder as bees and ants

■ black and yellow banded abdomen

■ two pairs of transparent wings

■ narrow-waisted

■ first and second segments of abdomen joins together

■ There's a sting at the end of the abdomen(sting)

■ mandibles for biting, suctorial proboscis for drinking



Members of the phylum Arthropoda and belong to the class of Insecta. They are small woven flying insects with piercing and sucking mouthparts. Adult male feed on juice of plants. The adult females have tube-like mouthparts that can pierce the skin of a host and feed on blood. Thousands of mosquito species feed on the blood of various hosts - vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish;along with some invertebrates, primarily other arthropods. The loss of blood is seldom of any importance to the host, but the saliva of mosquitoes will be transferred to the host during the bite. Mosquitos are important vectors of diseases such as dengue fever, malaria, yellow fever and Japanese Encephalitis. By transmitting diseases, mosquitoes cause the deaths of people, so they are considered one of the most dangerous pests in the world. They are in every land region except Antarctica.



Body consists of three main parts: head, thorax and abdomen. Two antennae are attached to the head, which they use to communicate. There are also two strong jaws in the head section. When ants find food, they emit pheromones that provide scent trails for their mates to follow.  Generally ants have compound eyes and three small simple eyes, some of them do not have compound eyes. Some ants are naturally blind, they detect the distance of things by the flow of air and temperature.

6 legs are attached to the thorax. They use their front legs to clean their antennae like a brush. In between the thorax and the gaster is the petiole. This is one special body part of an ant.

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